What is fermentation bread?Yeast is added and fermented in the cloth which mixed the cereal flour of poaceae , salt, and water. The origin of bread is said about B.C. 6000. However, the first bread was a thin flat hard unfermented thing. When leaving the cloth of unfermented bread , the yeast which was in the air adhered it by chance. When burning and eating it to the trial, it was bread more delicious than a former thing. Since the wheat which there is much gluten is contained in materials, and succeeded in making soft bread.
The process of bread.There are straight method , middle species method, fermentation species method, polish method , sour species method, and homemade yeast. The straight method and middle species method are often used.
Straight methodThis process is the method of mixing and kneading and fermenting at once without dividing the material of bread into a number of times. Since all materials are mixed at once, it becomes the result with the flavor in which the taste of material was harnessed. Moreover, since material is mixed at once, the number of times of fermentation is few and becomes the bread which is hard to chew. However, since there is little number of times of fermentation and fermentation time is short, bread becomes hard immediately. Mixed material→Fermentation→Division→The last fermentation→Firing
Middle species methodFlour is used not less than 50%. Unlike the straight method, material is divided into two steps and mixed. Since fermentation time becomes long, maturing of cloth progresses, and soft bread is made. Since much moisture is held, it is hard to become hard. Moreover, volume is rich and it is nonperishable. However, since fermentation time is long, making bread will take time. Mixed material (wheat, water, yeast).→Fermentation→Mixed material (oil, fats, sugar, salt) →Division.→Fermentation→Firing
Does it swell without a yeast fungus?A cake and pie are made how burned after mix bicarbonate of soda, the whipped egg, and wheat. By it, air bubbles are made and cloth swells. The cloth of a cake or a pie swell without a yeast fungus. Therefore, the time of fermentation is unnecessary.
What is gluten?Gluten is the protein which does not melt into the water and contained in wheat about 85%. It swells if added water, and gluten can be obtained if the flour which contained water fully is kneaded. There are elasticity and adhesiveness in gluten. The texture made into softness of bread dough is also based on gluten. Moreover, it is useful for gluten to stop the carbon dioxide made by fermentation.
About material of bread.Before bread wheat spread, it was the bread built with rye in Europe. Since gluten was not contained in rye, it was hard to stop carbon dioxide in bread dough. Furthermore, since lactic acid fermentation is carried out, protein has hardened. Therefore, there are peculiar acidity and scent in the black bread of Europe. Thus, the taste and aroma change with the materials of bread.
|Kind||Purpose||Quantity/Quality of gluten||Quantity of protein||Roughness of the powder|
|Very large/Very strong||11.5〜13.5||Rough|
|Semi-strongth flour||French bread
|Durum flour||Pasta||Large/Soft||11.5〜12.5||Very small|