Skin effect

When alternating current is sent through a conductor,

Frequency is high.

A lot of electric current flows on the surface of an object.
The quantity of the electric current inside an object falls.

Then,We explain a skin effect.

When electric current flows into a lead, a magnetic field occurs.

A magnetic field makes a lead produce electromotive force.

This electromotive force arises in the direction which bars change of current.
Electromagnetic induction

In short,

 The magnetic field which occurred prevents a electric current from flowing.

The magnetic flux which occurred on the surface of the conductor has little intersection with the magnetic flux which occurred inside the conductor.

The place through which the surface tends to flow.

William Thomson(1824~1907)

He is a British physicist.
He explained the skin effect in 1887.

Introduction of the absolute temperature, the second law of thermodynamics, etc.

Moreover, in order to explain electromagnetic induction and magnetic force, Thompson used the vector first.