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TIMELINE

May 17, 1868

American businessman Eugene Van Reed, along with 153 Japanese slaves from Yokohama, goes to a sugar plantations in Hawai'i. These first emigrants are called Gannen-mono. (Lit: original year people.) Another 40 Japanese slaves are taken to Guam.

1869

Dutch businessman Edward Snell takes 40 Japanese from Fukushima to California's Gold Hill and there establishes the Wakamatsu agricultural colony. (The colony failed and ended within a year.)

February 8, 1885

Under a Japanese-Hawai'ian program, 944 Japanese work on sugar plantations in Hawai'i for three years.

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1889

2,300 Japanese are living in America. The majority of the people are students and civil rights activists. From this time on, the number of students and seasonal workers from Japan increased.

February, 1892

Beginning of anti-Japanese movements.

April 30, 1900

Hawai'i becomes part of America under President McKinley.

May 14, 1905

Numerous Japanese organizations band to from the Nihonjinrenkokyoukikai. (United Japanese Association.)

1907

The Gentlemen's Agreement between Japan and America prevents Japanese immigrants from coming into America.

1908

A few Japanese groups organize to leave America, particularly in response to anti-Japanese movements. Many people leave for Brazil.

1913

In California, several anti-foreign laws are passed such as the Alien Land Law.

June, 1914 ` November, 1918

The United States participates in World War I.

1922

The U.S. Supreme Court, in deciding on the Ozawa case, rules that Japanese cannot become American citizens on the basis of race.

1924

The 1924 immigration bill is signed, prohibiting further Japanese immigration to the U.S.

1929

The Japanese-American Citizens League (JACL) is formed.

1931

Japan gains control of Manchuria.

1937

Trade between Japan and the United States is prohibited under a new law.

1941

Japanese assets in the United States are frozen by a Presidential Order.

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December, 1941 ` July, 1945

The United States participates in World War II.

February 8, 1942

President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066, which essentially allows military authorities to force Japanese Americans into concentration camps.

February 1, 1943

The all-Nisei 100th Battalion is formed.

1947

Japanese "war brides" are allowed to enter into the United States under a special law.

1951

The San Francisco Peace Treaty ends the Allied occupation of Japan.

1952

The United States allows 185 Japanese to enter per year.

1965

The new U.S. immigration law comes into effect.